Week 8 – 2015: Jacob Weber (1792-1840, Lehigh County, PA). How his good deeds were rewarded.

This week’s 52 Ancestors theme is “Good Deeds.” I decided to write about my 4th great grandfather, Jacob Weber (or Weaver) and how service to his country triggered a series of good deeds through the generations.

Jacob was born July 31, 1792 to Heinrich Weber and his wife, Magdalena Schmidt in Lynn Township in what is now Lehigh County, PA.

Payroll for Jacob Weaver, private. 71st Regiment, Pennsylvania Militai.

The United States was still a fairly young country, and tensions were still high with Great Britain. America found itself at war once again with Britain in the War of 1812. Jacob was 22 years old when he and other young men living in Lynn Township, decided to help defend their country and headed to Marcus Hook, PA to enlist. On September 17, 1814, Jacob became a private in Captain George Coldovy’s Company of Infantry, 71st Regiment of the Pennsylvania Militia.

However, Jacob’s service was very short and he was discharged 3 months later on December 20, 1814. The war ended 4 days later when the Treaty of Ghent was signed.

Jacob returned home to his father’s farm in Lynn Township. Three years later, he married Susannah Weber on May 26, 1817. Together they had 9 children. My 3rd great grandfather, Solomon, was one of their children.

Jacob died on December 4, 1840. He is assumed to have been buried in the Ebenezer Church Cemetery in New Tripoli, PA. After his death, Susannah moved to Lower Towamensing Township in nearby Carbon County with her son, Jacob. Their son, Solomon, lived nearby in Franklin Township.

Fast forward to present day, when I was starting to learn more about my 3rd great grandfather, Solomon Weaver. I had posted a query on the Carbon County, PA message board. A cousin replied to my query, and exercised his good deed when he shared a wealth of information on not only Solomon, but also about his parents, Jacob and Susannah. Among the gems he shared with me was a scan of a bounty land warrant certificate of 40 acres from the Department of the Interior that was awarded to Susannah as widow to Jacob Weber, who had served in Pennsylvania Regiment during the War of 1812.

WEAVERJacob_Land2

Bounty lands were often used since colonial times, to encourage enlistments and reward them for their service (or “good deed”). It appeared that Susannah had decided to file a claim under the Bounty Land Act of 1850, which extended bounty lands to men who had enlisted and served in the War of 1812 on June 12, 1852. Forty acres was the awarded to anyone who served from 1 to 3 months. The certificate that my cousin had said that Warrant number 83753, was awarded to Susannah on March 3, 1853. For whatever reason, Susannah never took advantage of the claim. According to my cousin, she gave the claim to Solomon, and it was never used.

This information prompted me to email the National Archives to find out more about Jacob’s service during the War of 1812. I was pleasantly surprised to receive an email back from an archivist who said he was mailing me a packet of information. The packet included copies of Jacob’s muster roll and payroll documentation, as well as paperwork that was submitted with Susannah’s bounty land application. The archivist wrote a very informative letter about the documents he had sent (for free). He also commented that he also had an ancestor that served in the same regiment as Jacob.

I still have much to learn about Jacob and his branch of my family tree. But thanks to a couple of “good deeds” from a distant cousin and someone who works at the National Archives, I know a little bit more about him.

WEEK 7 – 2015: John and Elizabeth (McGowan) Donnelly – Scotland/Philadelphia

John J. Donnelly

I know we all look at our family trees and wonder what our ancestors were really like. This week’s 52 Ancestors theme, Love, made me wonder how many of those couples lived their lives deeply in love with each other.

My great, great grandparents, John and Elizabeth Donnelly, are one of those couples that I can imagine were so much in love that they could not live without each other.

John Donnelly was born sometime around May 1844 in Ireland. His parents names may have been John Donnelly and Nancy McEntyre. At some point, John ended up in Greenock, Scotland and worked as a mason. It was there that he met Elizabeth McGowan, who was a daughter of Hugh and Mary (Fife) McGowan. They married June 11, 1867 at St. Mary’s Chapel in Greenock.

John and Elizabeth had 4 children, with at least 3 of them baptized at St. Mary’s Chapel: Mary Ann, Sarah, John and Hugh.

However, John and Elizabeth did not seem to find life in Scotland fulfilling. Around 1871, John decided to set out across the ocean to America. Elizabeth followed him shortly afterwards. She and her children, Mary Ann, Sarah and John, boarded the ship Europa in Glasgow, and arrived in New York on July 20, 1872.

John and Elizabeth took their young family to Philadelphia, where John continued working as a stone mason. Elizabeth gave birth to 5 more daughters, with only 3 of them surviving into adulthood: Agnes, Elizabeth and Catherine. John managed to save up enough money and bought a small rowhome for his family on Glenwood Avenue, in Philadelphia.

On February 1, 1909, 77 year old Elizabeth was busy taking care of things around the house, when she stumbled and fell down the stairs. Her neck was broken from the fall, and she died almost immediately. Her husband, John, must have been overcome with grief over the sudden loss of his wife. He became so ill, that he signed the house to his daughter, Agnes and her husband, Albert Tolle in March of 1909. Then, on April 13, 1909, John J. Donnelly died of pneumonia, almost 2 months after Elizabeth had died.

They are both buried together in Holy Sepulchre Cemetery in Cheltenham, PA.

WEEK 6 – 2015: Reuben Keiper – How did he get So Far Away?

I had planned on writing about another ancestor for this week’s 52 Ancestors challenge and theme “So Far Away.” However, I went a little “far away” myself when I became distracted and might have discovered a little bit of a break in a brick wall that my 3rd great grandfather, Reuben Keiper, has been hiding behind for a long time.

My Keiper ancestors have been quite a challenge for me. The family myth has always been that my great great grandmother, Sarah Jane Keiper, was a full-blood Indian who was adopted. I had never found proof to support that myth. Sarah’s death certificate said she was born April 16, 1853 in White Haven, PA and her parents were Reuben Keiper and Elizabeth Prutzman. I found Sarah living with Reuben and Elizabeth and other siblings in Kidder Township, Carbon County, PA in the 1860 census. Reuben’s birthdate was estimated to be around 1820. He and Elizabeth had at least 8 children: Mary, Henry, Hannah, Caroline, Rose, Sarah, Franklin and Alice. There are numerous Keiper and Prutzman families spread across Luzerne, Carbon and Monroe counties. I had never been able to connect Reuben and Elizabeth to any of these other families.

Several years ago, I obtained a copy of Reuben’s will from the Carbon County Courthouse, in Jim Thorpe, PA, hoping to learn more about Reuben. I learned a little bit more, but what puzzled me was that the will stated that he was living in Clinton County, Indiana, at the time the will was written in 1883. It also said that he had been living with his daughter, Rose Wasser, for years in her home in White Haven, PA. Why was Reuben suddenly living so far away in Indiana, after living in Pennsylvania all his life, and clearly was in “declining health?”

Last will of Reuben Keiper

Last will of Reuben Keiper. Carbon County Orphan’s Court Records.

I may have found the answer early this morning. It all started when I decided to check Facebook first thing this morning. A post in the Luzerne County Genealogy Facebook group about Newspapers.com adding more issues of the Wilkes-Barre Record caught my eye. This prompted me to go and do some searches, including the surname, Keiper.

This actually led to several random searches in a few newspapers in the Luzerne County area. One result was an obituary in a Pittson newspaper for a Samuel Eckhart who died in 1916. Samuel had three surviving sisters; one of those being a “Mrs. Franklin Keiper.” I knew that Reuben had a son named Franklin and that he had married Amelia Eckhart. What was interesting was that the other sisters also married men with the surname of Keiper! There was a “Mrs. James Keiper” and a “Mrs. Reuben Keiper.”

Long story short, this led me to start looking at the Pennsylvania Death Certificate collection and census records on Ancestry.com and finding a whole mess of other Keiper families, some with the same first names. In fact, I am still in the process of sorting them all out and trying to figure out if and how they are all related. As I discovered more names, I would go back to Newspapers.com and do a search to see if I could find any obituaries to help me sort things out. One of the names, that I did a search for was “Amos Keiper.”

Well, I did find an obituary and some articles about the one Amos Keiper I originally did a search for who was living in Luzerne County. However, it was this article in the March 7, 1883 Allentown Democrat, that really caught my eye:

The Allentown Democrat (Allentown, Pennsylvania) 7 Mar 1883, Wed • Page 2

The Allentown Democrat
(Allentown, Pennsylvania)
7 Mar 1883, Wed • Page 2

The article was a notice trying to locate relatives of an Amos Keiper who had lived in Clinton County, Indiana and died intestate and no heirs to his estate. Clinton County, Indiana was where my Reuben Keiper when he made his last will! I immediately opened up the digital copy of Reuben’s will just to make sure it was the same place. Not only did the locations match, but the witnesses for his will were Pernal K. Thomas and J.R. Brown. The same names listed as administrators for the estate of Amos Keiper in the newspaper article! Now, I may have found the answer as to why Reuben Keiper was so far away from home.

So my next step is to write to the Clinton County Circuit court for copies of Amos Keiper probate records and see if there are any more answers or clues. I know the day that SASE arrives back in my mailbox seems so far away.

So, that is my tale of how I totally got “so far away” off track from what I had originally planned for my blog post. I seemingly kept getting even further and further away on a meandering trail of newspaper articles, and census records, only to end up with something tied in back to my own direct line.

However, what really amazes me is that I somehow was able to connect all my morning’s research to this week’s theme.

WEEK 5 – 2015: Stephen A. Fish

Upon seeing the theme of this week’s 52 Ancestor challenge,”plowing through,” the records of the U.S. General Land Office immediately sprang to mind. The Homestead Act of 1862 was passed by Congress in order to make land in the west available to citizens willing to settle and reside on the land for five years and show evidence that they had improved it. The GLO records hold the documents showing the transfer of these public lands to the applicant. Since the applicants were required to show that they improved their parcel of land, no doubt there was a lot of “plowing through” involved.

My husband’s tree has quite a few of these bold adventurers. I decided to focus on his 3rd great grandfather, Stephen Allen Fish, who is credited with being amongst the earliest settlers in the small community of Liberty, Wisconsin.

No one seems to agree on where he was born. Some researchers say he was born in 1802 in Canada. However, others say he was born in New York or Massachusetts.

In 1850, he was living in Walworth County, Geneva with his wife and 4 sons. One of his sons was 18 year old Samuel.

According to the History of Vernon County, Samuel settled on section 9 of Liberty in 1855. He was elected as one of the first town officers in 1858, holding the position of clerk.

Stephen followed his son to Liberty shortly after. He was awarded the 85 acres he had been farming on February 1, 1858 by the Bureau of Land Management.

Stephen died in 1864 in Liberty. He is buried in the McCullough family plot in Liberty.

 

Google Earth Snapshot showing location of land settled by Stephen A. Fish in Vernon County, Wisconsin.

Google Earth Snapshot showing location of land settled by Stephen A. Fish in Vernon County, Wisconsin.

Land patent for Stephen A. Fish.

Land patent for Stephen A. Fish.

WEEK 4 – 2015: Mary Ann CARNEY – The Lost Sister

Mary (Carney) O'Mara. 1881-1955.

Mary (Carney) O’Mara. 1881-1955.

This week’s theme for the 52 Ancestor challenge is “Closest to your birthday.” I actually share a birthday with my great grand aunt, Mary Ann Carney. And, she has an interesting story, so this blog is dedicated to her.

Mary Ann was born on February 20, 1863 in Dunmore, Pennsylvania to Patrick and Bridget (McDonald) Carney. She was baptized on February 22, 1863 at St. Mary of Mount Carmel Catholic Church in Dunmore. Her sponsors were Michael and Marie Donovan.

Sadly, Mary never got to know her parents and her siblings, Margaret and James. Their mother became too ill to take care of them, and the children were placed in a home near Scranton sometime around 1864. Shortly afterwards, Margaret was taken from the home by her father’s uncle, Michael Murray, and was raised in his home in Scranton. James was taken 2 years later by the Peter Murray family, who were cousins of their mother.

A Caveney family had promised to take Mary when she was a little older. However, when they went to the home years later, they had discovered that she was already gone.

Mary had been taken from the home by a Joly family from Tunkhannock, PA. She remembered living with them and remembered the canal boats going up and down the nearby Susquehanna River. The Joly family had been told that Mary was baptized Catholic, and they were not Catholic. So, they gave her to William and Julia Collins of Lovelton, PA. The Collins family, who had 8 children of their own, were the only parents that Mary had known. She lived with them until adulthood.

On January 26, 1881, Mary married John O’Mara at Saint Basil’s Church in Dushore, PA. John and Mary settled down on a large farm in Stowell, PA and raised a large family of 16 children.

Although Mary was very busy with her large family and the farm, she still wondered if she had any other family and siblings. She vaguely remembered having a little brother. She tried to contact the Joly family once to see if they could give her more information. However, she discovered that they had moved out west and she did not know how to find them after that.

On October 31, 1924, her husband was reading the local newspaper, The Wyoming Democrat and saw this ad:

The ad that helped Margaret Carney Cone find her sister, Mary, after 60 years of being apart.

The ad that helped Margaret Carney Cone find her sister, Mary, after 60 years of being apart.

John O’Mara knew right away that it was Mary that they were looking for. Mary was surprised, because she never remembered having a sister. They immediately wrote to Margaret.

MarytoMarg_Nov1924_Page1 MarytoMarg_Nov1924_Page2 MarytoMarg_Nov1924_Page3 MarytoMarg_Nov1924_Page4 MarytoMarg_Nov1924_Page5 MarytoMarg_Nov1924_Page6

After a few letters back and forth, Mary was finally reunited with her sister, Margaret. It was noted that they looked and even acted, very much alike. Afterwards, Margaret and her family would come up to visit with Mary every summer for the next 20 years. Mary and John traveled to Philadelphia once, to visit with Margaret.

Mary reunited with her brother James, in June 1925. He came to Stowell from his home in Lowell, Massachusetts, and stayed for 3 weeks.  However, his health was very poor and he died on February 18, 1927. Their 3 week reunion was the only time Mary got to see her brother.

Mary died on January 4, 1955 at the age of 91. She is buried in St. Anthony’s Church Cemetery in Stowell, PA.

WEEK 3 – 2015: Kate Healy – the toughest woman in my tree

This week’s theme for the 52 Ancestors challenge is “Tough Woman.”  I feel like I have many woman in my family who are considered, “tough”and “strong.” Some I have already written about, including my great, grand aunt, Catherine Logue, who was a World War I nurse.

However, I finally chose my 2nd great grand aunt, Catherine McDonald Healy. Not only did she seem like she was a tough and strong woman, she has also from a tough family to research. And I have hit some brick walls with her life as well.

“Kate” is the sister of my 2nd great grandmother, Bridget McDonald Carney. I knew very, very little about my 2nd great grandmother. She and my 2nd great grandfather, Patrick Carney, seemingly disappeared off the face of the earth after their 3 children were “placed in a home” in Scranton sometime around 1864. The children all became separated after different relatives took the children. According to a family history, that a distant cousin had typewritten back in 1960s, my great grandmother, Margaret Carney, lived first, with an uncle of her father. She later moved to Yonkers, NY to live with her aunt, Kate Haley, who was a sister of Bridget McDonald.

I have been unable to find out what became of Patrick and Bridget Carney after that time. The same family history had lots of names in there, that I used as clues. “The McCaul family from Yonkers also visited us several times. They are our nearest relatives next to the Cones. Mrs. McCaul’s mother, Kate Haley, and Mom’s mother were sisters.” So, I began looking at “Kate Haley” to see if I could find out anything about her that help with learning more about the McDonald family.

I found the “Haley” family living in Yonkers in the 1880 Federal census only a few doors down from where my great grandmother was living with her husband and newborn baby. However, the last name was listed as “Healy.” This made research a little tough, since the last name was either spelled as “Healy,”  “Healey,” or “Haley.” Kate Healy, age 50, was living on Vineyard Avenue with her 8 children. The eldest 5 children were employed by the nearby carpet mill, Alexander Smith & Sons. No husband for Kate was present. Her birthplace was listed as Ireland, however, all of her children were born in England.

I found some of children’s birth and baptism records within England, Select Births and Christenings, 1538-1975 on Ancestry.com and Liverpool, England, Catholic Baptisms, 1802-1906 (also available on Ancestry.com). The father was listed as Andrew Healy.

I found a marriage record for Andrew Healey and Catherine McDonald. They were married on January 26, 1857 at St. Nicholas Catholic Chapel in Liverpool. Catherine’s father was listed as “Michael McDonald.”

Andrew and Kate had 8 children: Margaret, James, Ellen, Andrew, Martin, William and Francis. In the 1871 England census, they were living in Northowram, Halifax, England. But, I have been unable to discover what became of Kate’s husband, Andrew. For on September 25, 1872, Catherine Healey arrived in New York on the boat The Holland, which sailed from Liverpool. She came with her 5 youngest children: Ellen, Andrew, Martin, William and Francis. Her 2 eldest children and her husband were not listed on the passenger record.

I can only assume that perhaps Andrew Healy had passed away, leaving Kate with 8 children. So, she decided to start over again with her children in America. Regardless, she had to be one tough lady to make that long trip with all those children in tow. Can you imagine hearing “Are we there yet?  Are we there yet? Are we there yet?” for days and days?

I’m assuming the family settled in Yonkers, so they could get jobs at the carpet mill. Some of the children were employed by the carpet mill in Halifax, England. I found Kate last alive in the 1910 Federal Census. She was living on Ashburton Avenue with her son Francis, and her daughter, Margaret. Her age was listed as 74. I can only assume she died after 1910. However, I have been unable to find out when she died. St. Joseph’s Catholic Church is located nearby and I knew from other marriages, baptisms and burials, that the family was affliated with that church. However, they had no funeral record for kate. And the cemetery had no burial information for her either. Although, all of her children are buried there. I have been unable to find any obituary for her either.

I have been hoping to find a death certificate and/or an obituary that might be able to shed more light on her McDonald family. But, as the theme states, she has been “tough” as far as research on her goes.

Week 2 – 2015: Adam Brouwer – Ancestor of a future “king”

So this week’s theme for the 52 Ancestor’s challenge is “King.” Of course, my husband likes to think he’s the king around here, but I don’t think I’ll write about him. Instead, I looked into his family tree, to see if he had any “real” kings to write about.

This led me to go way back to someone I believe to be his 10th great grandfather, Adam Brouwer. He was born around 1620 and I found that he is the subject of many articles and books by other genealogists. However, no one seems to agree on his exact place of birth or heritage. Some believe he was born in Cologne, Germany or Berckoven, Netherlands.

Adam was employed as a soldier for the Dutch West India Company, a chartered company formed by Dutch merchants with the purpose of setting up trading posts in the West Indies. Their ships would hire 40-50 soldiers in order to defend themselves against enemy ships or hijack them. Adam was first sent to Brazil in 1641, then came to America to settle in the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (now New York) possibly in 1642.

On March 21, 1645, Adam married Magdalena Verdon. The marriage was recorded in the records of the Reformed Dutch Church of New Amsterdam. Adam and his wife relocated to the Dutch settlement of Gowanus (now Brooklyn). He and a partner, Issac de Foreest, built the first grist mill on Long Island. Adam bought out his partner in February of 1661. On May 26, 1664, Adam, along with other residents, petitioned Director-General, Peter Stuyvesant, to dredge a canal so they could get water to supply their mill. The mill remained in the Brouwer family for 3 generations. The mill was destroyed during the very bloody, Battle of Long Island during the Revolutionary War.

But where does the “king” fit in? Adam and Magdalena had at least 14 children. My husband is a descendent through their daughter Fytie Brouwer (born in 1656). Another one of Adam’s daughters, Sarah, had a descendent who was born on July 14, 1913 in Omaha, Nebraska as Leslie Lynch King, Jr. He eventually changed his name to Gerald R. Ford and became the 38th President of the United States.

I know, it was a stretch to find a connection to a king. However, it motivated me to take a closer look at someone who was just sitting way back in my husband’s family tree.

24. Manus Logue – Please come out from behind that brick wall!

I have some major catching up to do in the 52 Ancestors challenge. It seems to be a theme I see in reading other’s blog posts. We all seems to be a little behind.

But, for this week, I am focusing on my great, great grandfather, Manus (or Amandus) Logue. He was the first of my Logue ancestors to come to America, and probably the one ancestor that I would love to find out more about the most.

His basic info is this: he was born sometime around 1840, in County Donegal, Ireland. He married Ann Brown and had a son, Amandus, who was born around 1859. Manus came to America in before July 1860, and his wife and young son came over later in October 1864. The family settled in Allentown, PA, where Manus was employed most of his life working at the nearby furnace. He and Ann had several more children before she passed away in 1893, and he in 1901.

I have yet to find out what townland in Ireland Manus came from, and who his parents may be. His naturalization papers only indicate that he was born in County Donegal, and that he came to America from the port in Derry. I still have not found any ship records for him. He naturalization papers say he arrived in New York in May of 1860. And I did find him in the 1860 Census living as a boarder in Whitehall Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania.

However, I did find ship records for his wife, Ann and his son. They arrived in New York on October 28, 1864 on the ship, Thornton, which sailed out of Liverpool England.

Manus and Ann lived at 134 Liberty Street in Allentown, PA. This was across the street from the Catholic church where all their children were baptized. The baptism records have indicated that both Manus and Ann (Brown) Logue were both from County Donegal.

Recently, I have come across more clues of other family members. A few years ago, I received an email from someone, inquiring about Manus. His ancestors were next door neighbors of my Logue family in Allentown in the 1870 Census. They were also the godparents the youngest daughter of Manus and Ann. Francis Hines and Mary Shiels were the godparents to Catherine Logue, who was baptized at Immaculate Conception Church on March 7, 1880. I learned from this person that Francis and Mary later moved to Philadelphia and had more children. One of the godparents of their children was a John Logue. I do not know if this John Logue was a son or other relative of Manus. Perhaps the most significant information, was on Mary’s death certificate. Her mother was listed as Bridget Logue. This did indeed seem like there was a connection. Recently, we have both taken Ancestry’s DNA test, and confirmed that we are Distant Cousins. But, we still need to find out where exactly we connect.

Last month, I happened to stumble across another significant clue. I was browsing Newspapers.com. They now have the Allentown Leader and the Allentown Democrat online. I typed in “Logue” and discovered a wealth of good articles. But among those was an obituary for Bridget Brown, widow of Bernard Brown, who died at the home of her son-in-law, Manus Logue, 134 Liberty Street, Allentown. Bridget died on February 10, 1900, 7 years after her daughter, Ann, had died. I had never found Bridget living with Manus in any of the Census records.So, when did Bridget come to America?

I’m not quite sure where to go to next with my research. Hopefully, with all this new information, I can coax my great, great grandfather to come out from behind that brick wall.

23. Sarah A. Fowler

Today is my husband’s birthday. But, it is also his 3rd great grandmother’s birthday, Sarah A. “Sallie” Fowler. So, she is this week’s blog entry for the 52 Ancestors challenge.

Sarah was born on July 27th, 1837 in Alabama to Lewis Fowler and Lucinda Perkins. However, the family had moved and the Fowler family was living in Union Parish, Lousiana in 1850. They later moved to nearby Jackson Parish in Louisiana, sometime before 1860.

Around 1855, Sarah married Martin Abraham Tullos. They were living in Jackson Paris in 1860, near her parents, and had 3 children of their own: John Abraham, William Lewis, and Malinda.

Martin joined the Confederate Army during the Civil War, and I have not been able to find out anything more about him after 1862. So, it is unknown if her died during the Civil War or not. But, he was clearly out of the picture in Sarah’s life. Sometime around 1864, she married Greenbury Sanders, and had 5 more children: Lenora, Robert, Leroy, Leon, and Charles. The family moved to Comanche County. Texas before 1880.

Sarah died on September 13, 1900 in Comanche, Texas. She is buried in the Zion Hill Cemetery in Comanche, Texas.

Sarah Jane Keiper – An update and DNA results

A few months ago, I wrote a 52 Ancestors blog about my great great grandparents, Augustus and Sarah Jane (Keiper) Hettig. It was said that Sarah was a full blooded Indian that was adopted.

However, when I took a DNA test last year, Native American did not show up at all in my results. My ethnicity estimate is 40% Ireland, 35% Great Britain, 11% Italy/Greece, 9% Europe West, and trace regions consist of Iberian Peninsula, Finland/Northwest Russia, Europe East, Scandinavia, and Melanesia.

So was Sarah not Native America or did I just not receive any of the Native American DNA? And did the trace Melanesia figure in?

I bought another test and had my Mom take it. Her results were: 47% Europe West, 27% Scandinavia, 20% Italy/Greece, and trace regions Iberian Peninsula, Great Britain, European Jewish. No Native American.

So, do these results prove Sarah was not an Indian? In the photo of her with her husband, she looks like she had a dark complexion, and looked like she could have been Indian. Perhaps she was of Italian or Greek descent instead? And was she really adopted? Since she was born around 1853, and there are no adoption records for that time to really find out.

So, I’m not sure if I will ever find any answers to all the questions I have on my great great grandmother.